Best Hoverboard Under 150 to Ride in 2021

Most of the time, we pay more than the product is worth and then regret it later when we find a cheaper one with the same or better features and quality. The reason for this is that we blindly trust pricey products while ignoring the less expensive ones.
Finding the best hoverboards at a reasonable price also needs more effort and scrutiny. As a result, we frequently purchase a product without first conducting investigation. Hoverboards can cost anywhere from $100 to $1000, and the adage “you get what you pay for” isn’t necessarily true; you may find the greatest hoverboard under $150 that meets your needs.

Under $150, the 10 Best Self-Balancing Electric Scooters

1. YHR Hoverboard with LED Lights with Bluetooth Speaker
2. FLYING-ANT Hoverboard, 6.5 Inch Self Balancing Scooter
3. TPS Electric Self Balancing Hoverboard
4. UNI-SUN Off Roading Hoverboard
5. Felimoda Hoverboard 6.5”
6. LIEAGLE Stylish Hoverboard
7. Beston Sports Electric Hoverboard
8. Beston Smart Electric Hoverboard
9. Hover-1 Ultra Electric Self-Balancing Hoverboard Scooter
10. Swagtron Swagboard Twist Hoverboard

What to Look for When Purchasing the Best Hoverboard for Under $150

Most of us have had the experience of regretting a purchase, particularly one involving electronic devices. The lack of understanding about the items we buy is the cause of an unsatisfied purchase. Fortunately, thanks to the internet, we can now investigate everything and purchase anything based on our likes and needs.
Reviews Rabbit‘ve put together a complete guide to assist you choose the best hoverboard under $150 from the list we’ve provided, as well as when you visit Walmart or another store later.

UL Certification and Safety

Most of you will be hesitant to purchase a hoverboard due to safety concerns, and this is due to hoverboards’ controversial history. Hoverboard sales exploded in 2015, with a slew of new firms entering the market and the majority of production being uncontrolled or poorly regulated. Hoverboards were made with low-cost materials, particularly low-quality batteries, which caused the hoverboards to explode and catch fire. As a result of the market’s decline, officials were forced to interfere with stronger safety regulations. The UL 2272 certification ensures that the battery will not explode, therefore check whether it is UL 2272 certified before purchasing. All of the products on this list are UL 2272 approved, and several have several safety certificates for their tires, brakes, and other components.

Battery Capacity

It’s been more than five years since the hoverboard business has exploded, and companies are competing for market share by creating fancy and safe hoverboards. Unfortunately, no progress has been made in making hoverboard batteries last longer; the highest range you can achieve with a $150 hoverboard is 12mph, and that depends on your weight and the surface you’re riding on.
If you’re overweight and the ground is uneven, the battery will drain much faster; as a result, don’t anticipate too much from hoverboards in terms of battery timing, and instead focus on battery safety and charging time. A hoverboard normally takes 2-6 hours to fully charge, so a hoverboard that takes 2-3 hours is the best, but you need also consider the range, as a battery that takes less time to charge also wears out faster.

Maximum Pace

Hoverboards come in a variety of shapes and sizes, with the most well-known being hoverboards for adults, hoverboards for kids, and hoverboards for all-terrain use. The maximum speed varies according on the type of hoverboard; for children, it ranges from 6 to 10 mph, while for adults, it can reach 12 mph.
Some high-end hoverboards include numerous modes that let you to regulate or regulate the speed with your phone, making it easier to learn to ride. Multiple modes are not available on hoverboards under $150, so consider your age and speed while selecting a hoverboard.

Capacity for weight

We don’t pay attention to a car’s weight capacity since it can withstand a load that exceeds its maximum capacity; however, hoverboards cannot bear a load that exceeds their capacity, and the sensors will begin to malfunction if you do. Whether it’s a hoverboard under $100 or a hoverboard under $300, most hoverboards have a maximum capability of 150 to 260 pounds.
Hoverboards also have a minimum weight requirement; if the weight is less than that, the sensors will not react at all. Almost every hoverboard has a minimum weight capability ranging from 30 to 45 pounds.

Clearance of the Ground

The ground clearance of a hoverboard determines how well it will function on uneven roads and when ascending a slope. Hoverboard tires are typically 6.5 inches in diameter, and with the right chase height and tire height, they can climb a slope of 15 to 30 degrees.

3D Printer Pen Buying Guide

If you’re looking to buy your first 3D printing pen from an online retailer, here’s Reviews Rabbit guide to selecting the best 3D pen.

Range of temperatures

The temperature relates to the temperature that 3D pens can be set as well as the temperature of the working environment. First, ABS and PLA have different melting values, so if you have a preferred material, be sure it fits within the temperature range of the 3D pen. Second, the way the 3D printing pen heats up or cools down may be affected by the temperature of your working area

Changing the speed

You should also consider the fact that most pens have various speed settings. It’s a lovely feature to have, but depending on the sort of material you use, the design of your product, and your skills, it’s also useful. Some experienced users are able to work at a faster pace. Meanwhile, some materials require longer cooling times, which may slow down your work speed.

Time for the pen to cool

A 3D printing pen, like any machine, requires some time to cool down its system due to the energy and friction it generates. You’ll have extra doodling time with a 3D pen that cools down quickly or in a shorter amount of time.

Frequency of clogging

Because the procedure involves melting a solid plastic material, 3D pens might clog. When melted plastic becomes lodged within the pen, it cools down and solidifies, clogging the pen. This is quite inconvenient, and it’s impossible to correctly measure. Read the reviews to avoid 3D doodler that clogs regularly. If a lot of people have complained about this problem with the pen, you should look for another one.

Surface for working

Typically, if you’re a newbie, you’ll draw on a surface to create a 3D printed object. However, some 3D pens are incompatible with particular surfaces. Of course, you don’t want that, so be sure the one you choose is suitable for a variety of surfaces.


Wire is included with most 3D pens, and the length of the wire is important. The longer the wire, the better, as evidenced by the greatest 3D pens on the market. Furthermore, a short connection may impede your productivity. Consider the case where the socket is hidden beneath the bed and the pen’s cord is too short to reach it.
Wireless 3D pens are another excellent choice. You simply charge them and then take them with you to work wherever you are. To make the pen work, you’ll need a power supply. Some people even used power banks to charge their phones. The use of wireless 3D pens is more convenient.

The user’s age

Although all 3D printing pens work in the same way, there are some that are specifically developed for kids. Children’s best 3D pen are often safer to use. They’re made to cool down quickly so your child’s finger doesn’t get burned. Some even employ exclusively non-toxic and safe materials. If you’re buying a 3D pen for your child, make sure it’s suitable for children. In most cases, brands disclose the age of their products in their listings.

Additional 3D pen features

One of the characteristics that distinguishes the best 3D printer pen from the rest is its set of unique features. Is it possible to use different types of filament with it? Is it equipped with an LED display for easy reading? Is there a back suction included? If it does, and there are still more features, that would be fantastic!

Filaments Types

There are many different types of 3D printing filaments on the market, so when buying a 3D pen, make sure it uses one that is simple to change and inexpensive. Additionally, certain 3D pens may support multiple filaments. You may transition from ABS to PLA or other filaments with 3D drawing pens. A 3D pen that can be used with a variety of materials gives you greater versatility and allows you to be as creative as you want.

The name of the company

There are a plethora of 3D pens available on the market from a variety of manufacturers. Most, if not all, claim to be able to provide, but only the greatest 3D pen can. So, take your time to look over each brand and compare it to others to find the greatest one.


A warranty is usually included with 3D pens, however the terms and conditions may vary. Some may only be available for six months, while others may be available for a year or two. A product warranty provides me confidence in my purchase because companies typically provide one when they are confident in their goods.
While a warranty isn’t a key deciding factor because there are so many cheap 3D pens on the market, it still gives me peace of mind when a company offers one. So I recommend that you think about it as well, because it’s quite useful, especially if you have a problem with the goods you bought.

Customer Feedback

When purchasing a product online, customer reviews are quite useful. It’s the quickest method to find out if the 3D printing pen is effective, dependable, and worthwhile. As a result, never skip this section. Always read what prior buyers have to say about the 3D doodler you’re considering.

The best air rifle for squirrels with good quality sound moderator to a modern PCP air rifle

Squirrel shooting with an air gun is more difficult in the summer when the trees are in leaf than it is in the winter when the limbs are barren. Greys can be practically invisible due to the lush foliage that covers the tree canopy. So, what are your options? When the leaves are full and green, how can you carry the necessary pest control?
If you follow the air rifle pest control principles, you can effectively rid an area of corvids, greys, and rats while also helping to provide a safer environment for songbirds.

When it comes to vermin management, an air rifle is a fantastic tool.

When you combine a good sound moderator with a Air Gun Maniac, you have a piece of equipment that allows you to blast pests quietly without attracting the notice of inquisitive neighbors.
The most important thing to know is that you’ll need a sound moderator and a safe backstop, since if a pellet escapes your property, you’ll be breaking the law. Panel fences aren’t very strong, and an airgun pellet will almost certainly rip through them.

Put a handful of peanut or birdseed in front of your safe backstop to attract squirrels and rats there. For magpies, use stale crumbs because they are picky eaters that prefer bird tables. We maintain hens in our garden and, in addition to attracting the occasional rat, they occasionally attract the attention of magpies who prefer to perch in a neighboring apple tree. Obviously, I can’t shoot straight at these corvids for safety concerns. To attract the birds’ attention, I place a concrete slab beneath the apple tree, crack an egg in front of it, and spread a few vegetable scraps. The magpies would frequently flutter down for a closer look, allowing me to take a safe photograph from my perch.
Rats, corvids, and squirrels can drastically limit the amount of eggs and chicks that gamebirds produce. Another area where air rifle pest control plays an important role is in this. Grey squirrel activity is normally attracted to pheasant feeders, but in late spring, feeding stops, which is inconvenient because it is peak nesting season, and the greys’ diet shifts to eggs.

The feeders made my life simple; sit back and wait for the squirrels to show up.

When I was asked in to thin out grey squirrels in a wood where the owner fed big numbers of peanuts so he could watch the nuthatches and woodpeckers come in to feast, I came up with a solution. The greys, on the other hand, got ahead of the line and ate the nuts first. The feeders made my life simple; all I had to do was sit back and wait for the squirrels to show up. I realized that I could use the similar setup for some of my other permissions as well.
Landowners and keepers were quick to give me the thumbs up, so I built some quite rustic feeding stations that serve both wild birds and grey squirrels. I can typically count on a steady trickle of eager squirrels when I return with my best air rifle for squirrels after feeding them for three or four days in a row.
When shooting grey squirrels and rats with an air rifle, the head is the most reliable death region. Take them from the side and aim for the eye and ear with your pellet. With a strike to the heart and lung area delivered from the side to strike slightly behind the shoulder, a.22 calibre can likewise yield clean kills. A shot between the shoulders will hit the heart and lungs of a squirrel clinging to a tree with its back to you.
Again, headshots are the most effective way to kill. Magpies, on the other hand, can be dispatched with a strike to the chest or a shot from behind, precisely between the shoulders, striking the heart and lungs.

Best Pcp Air Rifle For Hunting Small Game Guide at games

Best Pcp Air Rifle For Hunting Small Game. Any of which is a bargain for a serious PCP air rifle.1200 and 1250 Gamo huge cats With this air gun from Gamo, you can take aim and take down the game.
Airguns and Other Sports Information. Even this gun can kill a rabbit with a single shot from about 40 yards distant. The Ruger Blackhawk combination air rifle is perhaps one of the greatest alternatives for small game hunting, pest management, and focused shooting for wild hunting enthusiasts.

Best Pcp Air Rifle For Hunting

Whether you’re using it for pest management, target practice, plinking, small game hunting, or anything else, it’s a great tool.
You should pay special attention to this listing if you have a big problem in your yard.

Despite its size, this pistol performs admirably while hunting small species at close range. With this one, you can shoot.177 caliber at a speed of 1200 fps. We also think it’s one intimidating-looking air rifle. Newyork considers big game hunting with air rifles of Air Gun Maniac.

Hunters that use air guns as their primary weapon, many prefer using.22 caliber air rifle. This model comes in.177,.22 and.25 calibers and screams in each of them, producing muzzle velocities of 1,000, 1,000, and 900 fps, respectively.The top of the line model is ready to go out of the box with a realtree edge finish and a.

The great performing air rifle from Gamo

When it got released to the weapon market, then the manufacturer started to gather all reviews and feedback from the proud owners of the gun. This monster has been specially designed to take down a wide range of prey, and it won’t have any trouble with deer. Another great performing air rifle from Gamo!
Many people hunt using air rifles, and there are many different types of air rifles available in the UK. When selecting the best air gun, however, there are two main differences to consider.
The two distinct differences are legal distinctions. A FAC – Fire Arms Certificate is required to own an air rifle that is more powerful than 12 ft-lb.

Anyone over the age of 18 can buy and own an air gun with a rating of less than 12 ft-lb. Unless you are a serious competition shooter, I would not recommend going to the trouble of obtaining a FAC, especially because many non-FAC rifles are more than capable of performing admirably.
Choose between a spring-piston, a gas ram, or the best PCP air rifle– each has advantages and disadvantages.
All of them are excellent survival rifles and are capable of hunting small wildlife such as rabbits and pigeons.
In fact, a rabbit can be killed with a headshot with as little as 6 ft-lb and a bird with even less.
For a rabbit or pigeon death shot, the.22 has a maximum hunting range of 30 meters; the.177 has a slightly longer range of 40 meters.
I’ve heard reports about people killing rabbits at distances of over 60 meters, but that’s quite rare and exceedingly unlikely, and more akin to “old hunting tales.”
But keep in mind that, in the correct hands, both the PCP and the Springer are formidable hunting guns.

Talk about pictures

The view of writers on the work of painters: throughout the week, we ask ourselves what it means to “write the painting”, or when the hand of the writer takes over from that of the artist, each one with its own language.

Vermeer's View of Delft (circa 1660), in the Mauritshuis Museum in The Hague
Vermeer’s View of Delft (c. 1660), in the Mauritshuis Museum in The Hague • Credits: Photo by Buyenlarge / Getty Images – Getty

Pascal Dethurens , professor of comparative literature at the University of Strasbourg, talks to us today about the relationship between painting and literature. He has devoted several books to this theme: Writing painting. From Diderot to Quignard , republished in 2018 by Citadelles & Mazenod, Éloge du livre. Readers and writers in literature and painting (Hazan, 2018), or L’œil du monde. Images of the window in Western literature and painting (at l’Atelier Contemporain, 2018). 

A fairly mild attack of uremia was the reason she had been prescribed rest. But a critic who wrote that in the View of Delftby Ver Meer (on loan from The Hague Museum for a Dutch exhibition), a painting he loved and thought he knew very well, a small section of yellow wall (which he did not remember) was so well painted that it was, if one looked at it alone, like a precious work of Chinese art, of a beauty which would be sufficient in itself, Bergotte ate a few potatoes, went out and entered the exhibition. From the first steps he had to climb, he was seized with dizziness. He passed in front of several paintings and had the impression of the drought and uselessness of an art so artificial, and which was not worth the drafts and sun of a palazzo in Venice, or of a simple house by the sea. Finally he was in front of the Ver Meer that he remembered more brilliantly, more different from anything he knew, but where, thanks to the article of the critic, he noticed for the first time little figures in blue, that the sand was pink, and finally the precious material of the tiny piece of wall yellow. His dizziness increased; he fixed his gaze, like a child, on a yellow butterfly he wants to seize, on the precious little piece of wall.“This is how I should have written, he said. My last books are too dry, it would have been necessary to pass several layers of color, to make my sentence in itself precious, like this small yellow section of wall”. However, the severity of his dizziness did not escape him. In a celestial scale appeared to him, loading one of the trays, his own life, while the other contained the small section of wall so well painted in yellow. “- Marcel Proust, La Prisonnière . 

The links between literature and painting are rich and multiple. With our guest, we discuss several aspects: first, the descriptions of works of art in literary texts – or ekphrasis , the first of which probably date back to Homer, with the shield of Achilles described in the Iliad . According to Pascal Dethurens, by putting words on the “astonishment” he feels, “the writer legitimizes the exercise of admiration”. The writer, sensitive to images, cannot remain blind in front of a painting – as one sees it in the passage of the death of the writer Bergotte at Proust, in front of the “small yellow wall” of the View of Delft by Vermeer ,, whose sketches he had seen in the painter’s studio: 

It is wonderful, in an infinite solitude on the sea shore, under a cloudy sky, to gaze upon a desert of limitless water. You still have to have gone there, have to come back, want to cross over to the other side, not have power, be deprived of everything that sustains life, and nevertheless perceive the voice of this life in the roar of the waves, the breath of the air, the passage of the clouds, the solitary cry of the birds. This requires a requirement of the heart and this disappointment that, to express myself thus, nature inflicts on you. But all this is impossible in front of the painting, and what I was to find in the painting itself, I only found between myself and the painting, namely a demand addressed by my heart to the painting and a disappointment that I felt. inflicted the painting. I thus became the Capuchin myself, the painting became the dune, but the expanse to which my melancholy gazes must have been, the sea, was totally absent. –Heinrich von Kleist, Empfindungen vor Friedrichs Seelandschaft

"The monk by the sea" by Caspar David Friedrich, painted between 1808 and 1810 and exhibited at the Alte Nationalgalerie in Berlin
“The monk by the sea” by Caspar David Friedrich, painted between 1808 and 1810 and exhibited at the Alte Nationalgalerie in Berlin • Credits: Photo by Fine Art Images / Heritage Images – Getty

The proximity to images thus also allows the writer to reflect on his own work: Pascal Dethurens summons during this program the figures of Pascal Quignard (and in particular his text On the image which is missing today ) or of Yves Bonnefoy , which both offer a reflection on the image, the question of the visible and poetic research. Finally, certain literary works can by themselves be considered as paintings, in the same way that a text is also “a window, a cutout given on reality”. We think in particular of the flamboyant red of Salammbô , the shimmers of La Tentation de Saint-Antoine or the mouse gray of Madame Flaubert. As we see with our guest, the writer’s gaze enriches our conception of the works, just as it needs the painter’s hand and eye: “if we were content to see what is only under our eyes, we would miss thousands of images “. 

The painting

The painting is the most expressive visual arts: indeed, the sculpture only makes the shape, while painting can translate all the conceptions of the mind through all the realities of the kind or of the imagination , represented on a smooth surface, in their shapes and colors.
From a technical point of view, a painting is conventionally made up of three elements-:color, support and intermediate plaster. The colors are classified into four categories: vegetable, animal and mineral colors, and finally charcoals. Many of them are altered by the effect of light or by chemical reactions resulting from their mixture. The colors derived from aniline must, for this reason, be excluded without exception. Any solid material can be used as a support for painting: stone, wood, metals,ivory, tanned skins, canvas, paper, fabrics,earthenware. The support plays a purely passive role. The intermediate coating is, on the contrary, of capital importance: the indefinite conservation of a painting or its rapid deterioration depend on its nature and its quality.

The colors crushed with water are spread over a fresh sand and lime mortar ( fresco ); in these same colors we can incorporate, as we paint, skin glue ( tempera ), wax made miscible with water by the presence of lime ( wax paint ), yellow d ‘ eggs emulsified in cold water and mixed with resin (egg paint). The watercolor colors , ground with erased water, are applied directly to the support. For oil painting, the support (canvas or panel) is glued with skin glue, then garnished with a layer of white lead. The colors, crushed with a small quantity of carnation oil, should only be applied to this plaster when it is perfectly dry.

The execution procedures are, in principle, not subject to any rule. The hemp canvas, well stretched, is placed on an easel. The colors , all prepared, are enclosed in tin tubes. The artist arranges them in the order he likes around the rim of his palette, the medium remaining reserved for the various mixtures he will make, before placing them on the canvas using round brushes, flat paintbrushes or brushes, sometimes a small trowel or palette knife. Two operations precede the final work and guide its execution: the sketch, summary reduction of the paintingto paint, where the artist fixes the arrangement and the general effect; the studies or cartoons, where he stops separately the important details. By transferring these studies to the canvas, either by decals or by squaring, he proceeds to set up his composition. He performs the drawing, to his rough or detailed taste, either using charcoal (which he will have to fix before painting so as not to soil his tones), or with a brush, with a diluted color. He then begins to paint: by smear, when he covers his canvas with a light layer applied dry; by impasto or in full paste, when it loads it with a thick material and of solid aspect; by glazing, when he superimposes a layer of transparent and very diluted color on a dry color. To obtain broken tones, he mixes frank tones on his palette, or juxtaposes them on the canvas, thus producing an optical mixture, the effect of which, brutal when viewed up close, takes on a precious intensity in decorative art from a distance. The variety of effects results from the simultaneous and intelligent use of these various methods.

Once the paint is completely dry, it is varnished, if necessary, to remove any cloudiness and restore the tones to their true value. The variety of materials and manipulations used in oil paintingis the dangerous side of this process, the most perfect as an immediate result. The resins of the varnishes turn yellow. The bitumen, which never dries, blackens and cracks the pastes with which it is covered; the work of the colors modifies their aspect, and makes reappear the tones of the deep layers through the superficial layers, in the form of spots which one calls repentances. The watercolorist has more limited resources, because he can only use transparent colors and the white of the paper is the culmination of his luminous effect; but his work is, as a preservation, very solid. This is the watercolor that painted silks, lint, etc., adding to the water a light bite.earthenware , metal oxides are the only ones that can be used. They are diluted in gasoline and subjected, the work once finished, to a firing which incorporates them into the enamel of the support, subjecting them to changes of tone which the artist must take into account when painting. This painting is, in short, the only one to which the word “unalterable” applies rigorously.


The knowledge of the painter are drawing , the anatomy , the perspective linear, aerial perspective and chiaroscuro . To achieve the effects he aspires to, he needs invention, the science of composition, and great practice, ie. everything related to execution, to the work of the hand. We must also take great care in the grinding and composition of the colors , in the preparation of the material on which these colors will be applied. Some painters prepare on the palette, before painting, the tints that are necessary for them: others do them with the brush as and when they need, which produces more variety in the color.
From the point of view of the material execution, the processes and the materials that it implements, the art of painting is subdivided into several specialties, which are:

the oil-painting , the paint mural painting with the tempera , paint polish painting with watercolors , the wash painting with tempera , paint pastel , to the wax , painting in miniature , painting in shades in mosaic ;
Compared to the materials on which we paint, we distinguish:
the mural , on wood , on canvas, ivory , on enamel , on porcelain , on glass , etc.
With regard to the subjects represented, we distinguish:
the history painting (representation of historical or mythological episodes), of battles , paint portraits or nudes , genre painting (paint familiar scenes), painting landscapes or marine ; painting of animals , flowers , painting of still life ; decorative painting , arabesques , grotesques . (L.).

In the library . – Théophile, Schedula diversarum artium , Paris, 1843, in-8 °; L.-B. Alberti , De pictura, Basel, 1516, in-8 °; Robert Fludd , Tractatus de arte picturae, Frankfurt, 1624, in-fol .; J. Scheffer, Graphica, id est de arte pingendi, Nuremberg, 1669; A.-F. Doni, Il Disegno, Venice, 1549, in-8 °; Lomazzo, Trattato dell ‘arte della pittura, Milan, 1585, in-4 °; Leonardo da Vinci , Trattato delta pittura , trad. in French by Fréart de Chambray , 1651, 1716 and 1724; Algarotti , Saggio sopra la pittura,traduct. in French by Pingeron, Paris, 1769, in-12; Roger de Piles, Course of painting by principles, Paris, 1708 and 1720, in-12; Watelet, The Art of Painting, 1760, in-4 °; Liotard, Treaty of the principles and rules of painting, Geneva, 1781, in-8 °; Gérard de Lairesse , The Big Book of Painters , Paris, 1787, 2 vols. in-8 °; Richardson, Treatise on Painting , transl. from English by Rutgers, Amsterdam, 1728, 3 vols. in-8 °; Reynolds , Discourse on Painting , traduct. from English by Janssen, 1188 and 1806, 2 vols. in-8 °; Hagedorn, Reflections on painting, traduct. from the German By Huber, Leipzig, 1775, in-8 °; l’Abbé de Marsy , Abridged Dictionary of Painting and Architecture , Anise, 1746, 2 vol. in-8 °; Pernetty, Dictionary of painting, sculpture and engraving , Paris, 1757, in-8 ° Watelet et Lévesque, Dictionary of painting, sculpture and engraving , Paris, 1792, 5 vol. in-8 °; Paillot de Montabert, Complete Treatise on Painting , 1828-1851, 9 vols. in-8 ° and atlas.
For the history of painting: Bulenger, De Pictura, plastice et staluaria veterum , Leyden, 1627, in-8 °; Bellori , Della Pittura antica , Venice, 1697; Junius, De Pictura Veterum , treatise published by Graevius, Rotterdam, 1694; Durand, History of Ancient Painting , London, 1725; Turnbull, Treatise on Ancient Painting , in English, London, 1740; Requeno, Saggi sul ristabilimento dell’antica arte de Grecie de ‘Romani pittori , Parma, 1787, in-4 °; Letronne, Letters from an antiquarian to an artist on the use of historical mural painting in the decoration of temples among the Greeks and Romans, Paris, 1836, in-8 °; Raoul-Rochette, Unpublished antique paintings , Paris, 1836, in-4 °; Vasari , Vite de più excellenti pittori, Florence, 1550, translated into French by Jeanson and Léclanché, Paris, 1840, 10 vol. in-8 °; Dati, Vite de ‘pittori antichi , Florence, 1667, in-4 °; Dezallier d’Argenville, Summary of the life of the most famous painters , Paris, 1762, 4 vol, in-8 °; Séroux d’Agincourt , History of art through monuments , 1809-23, 6 vols. in-fol .; Denon , Monuments of the drawing arts among ancient and modern peoples , 1809, 4 vol. in-fol .; Ch. Blanc, History of painters of all schools, from the Renaissance to the present day , Paris, 1849-62 gr. in-4 °.


Discover the main lines of art history

According to a BVA survey, 20% of French people have already bought a work of art . Although contemporary art does not appeal to the majority of the general public, historical works of art still interest many people who survey the finest painting museums. The opportunity to discover the greatest masterpieces of French painting through various movements such as Impressionism, Symbolism, Dadaism, Classicism, Romanticism, Cubism or even Expressionism.

From still life to self-portrait, including wall painting or oil on canvas, the history of painting and its great artists have seen it all. Here is a small summary of the information to remember about this 3rd art.

Who are the greatest painters in history?

The history of art, and more precisely the history of painting, has been marked by great painters. Without knowing anything about the history of painting, many have already heard of the great names of the 3rd art . Picasso, Van Gogh, Da Vinci, Dali, Matisse, or even Michelangelo are among these great characters widely known to the general public.

Who are the greatest painters?
Van Gogh is one of the essential painters in the history of art.

Many museums allow visitors to discover the large canvases and oil paintings which have made the reputation of painting and which are entirely part of the history of France or elsewhere.

In France there is one of the most famous museums: the Louvre museum . But art lovers can also take advantage of the Orsay museum or the Georges Pompidou center to admire the great works of contemporary painting.

According to recent studies, 6 in 10 French people say they go to the museum at least once a month . An average that explodes in the capital since it is easier to access this kind of establishment. However, the other big cities do not lack collections and offer, for the most part, a Museum of Fine Arts.

All these artistic meetings thus allow to discover the greatest painters, all periods and artistic movements combined.

At the Louvre museum, you can admire painters such as Lénoard de Vinci and his famous Mona Lisa, but also Théodore de Géricault, Rembrandt, Courbet and Le Caravaggio . Painters from the Italian Renaissance to the beginning of modern painting. It is also possible to admire the most beautiful paintings of Antiquity while strolling in the alleys devoted to Egypt or to Greece.

At the Musée d’Orsay, you can also admire great painters in the history of art such as Van Gogh, Gauguin, Monet, Manet, Cézanne, Renoir , and many others. The history of painting is long and many painter made a name for themselves with their contemporaries, and sometimes much later.

In any case, their works, regularly restored, reach us today for the pleasure of our eyes. Klimt, Kandinsky, Van eyck, Giotto, Fra angelico, Véronèse, Degas, Botticelli, Rubens, Goya, Vermeer, Duchamp, Ingres, Pissarro, Mondrian, Seurat, Toulouse-Lautrec, Chagall, the list of the great painters of history n ‘does not end.

The top 10 paintings to know absolutely!

The works sometimes exceed the masters. Thus large historical paintings have marked the spirits over the centuries, leaving the image in the head of the general public, without necessarily being associated with the name of the artist. Some canvases marked by their strangeness , others by the subject they deal with , or even because they mark the beginning of a great change in the history of painting .

What are the famous paintings?
Guernica is one of the most famous works of art in the painting world.

One of the most famous paintings, as well known as its author, is the famous Mona Lisa . Painted by Leonardo da Vinci, it is now an international star at the Louvre Museum. Thousands of visitors flock to the museum to see this work so original for the time. Painted like today’s portraits, the Mona Lisa is intriguing with her smile, but also with her gaze that follows visitors wherever they may be. This strangeness of the canvas continues to intrigue many art historians who look into the subject.

In the category of popular works, it is also possible to cite a famous painting by the painter Edvard Munch entitled ”  The Scream  “ . Painted in 1893, the work represents a humanoid form as frightened as it is frightening. Known to the general public and repeatedly misused, the work is still talked about today.

Other large canvases are known to deal with strong subjects and have sometimes become real symbols. This is particularly the case with a painting by Eugène Delacroix entitled ”  Liberty leading the people  “ . Great symbol of the republic thanks to the allegory of freedom represented by a woman wearing the Phrygian cap, the painting is one of the most famous in the history of art.

It is the same for the “  Raft of the Medusa  ” by Théodore Géricault which represented the sinking of the royal navy or for “  Guernica  ” by Pablo Picasso who denounced the horrors of the Spanish civil war .

Finally, several paintings have become famous for having announced a new artistic movement or for having inspired it. It is indeed thanks to Claude Monet’s painting “  Impression, soleil levant  ” that the impressionist movement was born. As well as the famous ”  Great wave of Kanagawa  ” of Hokusai which influenced all the impressionist painters.

Other paintings marked major upheavals in the art world. This is particularly the case of Edouard Manet and his ”  Déjeuner surherbe  “ , the first modern painting, or even of ”  Demoiselles d’Avignon  ” by Pablo Picasso who created the cubist movement, and finally of the ”  Persistence of  Dali’s memory ” for surrealism. Large paintings which still mark the major stages in the history of painting today.

Discover the history of painting!

Painting was born much earlier than one might think. And no, Leonardo da Vinci is not one of the first masters of painting!

Long before him, prehistoric men already used paint . Painters from another time then painted the animals of their time. In particular, there are representations of mammoths in several European archaeological sites. To paint, our ancestors especially used colors such as black, yellow ocher and red ocher .

When did we start painting?
The cave paintings are the first traces of painting in history.

Antiquity is also a great artistic period since the Greek, Roman and Egyptian civilizations do not hesitate to decorate the walls as well as the painting ceramics representing men or even architectural elements.

In the Middle Ages and in the West, paintings were made on manuscripts or on wooden boards. The representations are then related to religions and especially Christianity. A theme that has been discussed for a long time, since painting will serve religion for several centuries before this medium really breaks free from it.

The Italian Renaissance is an opportunity to see the appearance of geniuses of painting such as Botticelli or Leonardo da Vinci. The study of the environment and the sciences marked notable changes for art. The prospect starts to be represented and human bodies have never been real.

Little by little, the Renaissance gave way to baroque painting, represented in particular by the artist Le Caravaggio. Baroque paintings are particularly concerned with depicting tragic scenes from the Bible. The paintings are dark due to the chiaroscuro technique. The painters thus accentuate the contrasts by illuminating part of the painting, thus creating shadows in certain places.

A few years later, in the middle of the 17th century, some painters like Fragonard decided to lighten up the themes used in painting, we then speak of rococo . The paintings are rather joyful and sensual, even sometimes erotic.

Towards the end of the 18th century, painters took a new turn by deciding to return to the fundamentals of art . The artists were then inspired by ancient architecture and painted simpler, more refined canvases, which we would call neoclassical . Then comes the romantic movement during which artists paint in a melancholy way events where nature takes back its rights. Events also painted in the realism of Courbet . The painting is then in a way, the photography of the time.

With the arrival of cameras, painting therefore lost its role of representing reality. No need to paint portraits, or the big events of this world. Painting then becomes a way of expressing oneself and of giving one’s own vision of the world.

The history of painting will then know many movements such as pop art or fauvism. Until today when painters continue to draw inspiration from the great of this world while trying to find a place in history.

Who are the most famous contemporary painters?

Who are the contemporary painters?
Pierre Soulages’ blacks have become famous.

Painting has therefore evolved well since prehistoric times. Contemporary painters use the codes of their predecessors while including a personal touch. Among the most famous artists of our time, we can mention:

  • Gerhard Richter,
  • Yan Pei Ming,
  • Yue Minjun,
  • Martial Raysse,
  • Anselm Kiefer,
  • Philippe Garel,
  • Gérard Garouste,
  • Miquel Barcelo,
  • Vladimir Veličković,
  • Georg Baselitz,
  • Pierre Soulages,
  • Marlene Dumas.

Portrait of Marcel Duchamp as a “queer” artist

Anyone can hide behind an opaque window. And one artist can veil several others. The Fresh Widow work, part of the collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York (MOMA), reproduces in miniature a “ French window ” with squares entirely covered with black leather. The museum notice attributes the work to the facetious artist “Marcel Duchamp, American born in France, 1887-1968”. However, an inscription at the base of the sculpture window states: “Copyright, Rose Selavy, 1920”. Which makes it “the first work signed by Duchamp’s female alter ego “, so just a century ago.

Portrait of Marcel Duchamp in Rrose Sélavy (1921)-Man Ray
Portrait of Marcel Duchamp in Rrose Sélavy (1921)-Man Ray

The signature will transform to become Rrose Sélavy: “Eros, c’est la vie”, perhaps also a reference to “ Rose is a Rose is a Rose ”, by Gertrude Stein, which deals with an eternal “indefinition” . The heteronym will finally allow the Dadaist to reinvent himself as a woman with her independent creative production. Man Ray photographed Rrose Sélavy-Marcel Duchamp, with wig, fur coat, pearl necklace and hat, playing on the fluidity of sexual identities.

Was he (was she? Were they?) So queer ahead of his time, as the buzzword, intentionally ambiguous term is in use now? A hundred years ago, did the Einstein of modern art also play with gender or sexual identity, as many artists and mere contemporaries do today?

“Dadaism is fundamentally anti-standard. Everything goes there, including heteronormative norms, which allows some men to claim a share of femininity, and some women, a so-called androgynous identity. So talk about queer for the time of a hundred years ago, why not, ”comments art historian Julie Richard.

“Some purists claim that the term queer cannot be attributed to a historical body of work. It would be anachronism. I think it’s wrong and too restrictive. Already, at the beginning of the XX E century, in certain clubs of New York, the LGBTQ community appropriated the term, which means “strange”, to transcend it, and draw from it the positive. This nominative process dates back a century and it is necessary to reexamine history through the codes of queer identity , I would even say of the queer approach to art at all times. ”

Follow the guide

Only, nothing is as simple as it seems with Marcel Duchamp, and this additional strangeness leads to even more complex ramifications involving the work Fountain of 1917. There is nothing more fascinating than this ready- made . At the turn of 2000, when The Guardian asked dozens of art historians what was the most important work of the XX th century, the urinal won .

“ Fountain establishes a paradigm in art,” says Ms. Richard. Marcel Duchamp had in fact made another ready-made before, the wheel on a stool, in 1913, but the urinal is much more radical. The object is presented as is, but upside down, without modification, except for the signature: R. Mutt. It diverts the object from its initial function. By offering it to the Salon des Indépendants, he says that what counts in deciding what art is is the authority of the artist. ”

The American art historian Amelia Jones was the first to take a different interest in Marcel Duchamp, first to criticize his fetishization by his colleagues, then to show that Fountain is a collective creation produced in collaboration with one, two or even three people.

Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven (1874-1927) is one of the creative people. Born Elsa Hildegard Plötz in Pomerania, she moved to Berlin, then to the United States in 1910. She married Baron Leopold Freytag-Loringhoven (who committed suicide shortly after), led a penniless bohemian life in Greenwich Village, returned to Europe in 1923, died in Paris.

The baroness is drawn more and more from oblivion. The Quebec art historian studies the performances in public space of the baroness and another queer artist before the hour, the Frenchwoman Claude Cahun (1894-1954). This work is part of the recent revival of research on the so-called historical avant-garde (Peter Bürger), Futurism, Surrealism and Dadaism. Publications and exhibitions are multiplying. The study of the contribution of women to these artistic movements is enriched in particular by the renewed perspective of gender studies .

The dada spirit

The list of collaborators and artists (we are not talking about muses-model-mistresses à la Picasso) is constantly growing. Just for hype, we can quote Hannah Höch, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Emmy Hennings, Suzanne Duchamp, Céline Arnauld and, of course, the baroness. German art historians Renate Wiehager and Katharina Neuburger have just published Duchamp and the Women und di Frauen , which presents a hundred women artists, writers, patrons or gallery owners who have gravitated around Duchamp.

For the Dadaist circle, Elsa is Dada. Man Ray said so. Marcel Duchamp repeated it. Elsa von Freytag is the embodiment of the spirit of questioning conventions and ideological, aesthetic, political and identity constraints. In addition, like other Europeans, she fled the continent before the great butchery of 1914-1918, to somehow start over in America.

Research by Ms. Richard and others shows that this artist developed a whole lexicon related to plumbing. She exhibited in 1917 (the year of the urinal) a sculpture called God made of pieces of pipe forming a hydraulic siphon, like the one connected to urinals.

“She was interested in iconography of the order of the trivial and even the abject,” explains Julie Richard. It is said that she cultivated bad smells on purpose. This way of being wanted to be anti-normative. She wrote several poems about the body, including one on orgasm. She stars in a film by Man Ray and Marcel Duchamp titled La baronne shaves his pubic hair .

There is also a trace of the Duchampian debt to von Freytag in Marcel Duchamp’s correspondence. The day after the opening of the Salon des Indépendants, on April 11, 1917, he wrote to his sister that one of her friends under a male pseudonym offered a porcelain urinal and that she was refused. “This is the most striking element. He confided in an intimate correspondence. He has no reason to hide anything. ”

In her latest book, Souvenirs from the Future (Actes Sud), published this summer, the American writer Siri Hustvedt bluntly accuses Marcel Duchamp of having stolen his famous ready-made . “The baroness has been ignored and ridiculed: this is what generally happens with female artists,” she summed up in a virtual conference this summer at the Buenos Aires International Literature Festival.

An antiart art

The dada master has not revealed anything publicly to perpetuate the game, the criticism, the overthrow. The original ready-made has been destroyed. Copies have been “authenticated”, including a so-called fifth version , dated 1964, in the National Gallery of Canada .

“Marcel Duchamp revolutionized art, that’s undeniable. It is now interesting to see which acolytes he worked with and how he played with art-antiart-art notions. He was against validation by the market and the urinal completely plays that card. Elsa von Freytag thought no less. A kind of jousting has taken place to find the most eccentric idea, going against the art market and making works that are almost unsaleable or of fake value. In addition, the Salon des Indépendants opens with the butcher’s shop raging at Vimy, four days after the United States entered the war against Germany.

His poems were grouped together in 2016 under the title Body Sweats . This publication and recent research allow us to reposition this extraordinary, peerless artist. “She was difficult to understand for her contemporaries. She was queer ahead of her time. She took on a fluid gender identity. She showed an assertive masculinity. She was even arrested in 1910 when she arrived in North America, in Pittsburgh, for wearing men’s clothes. ”

She practiced strolling, strolled in the streets of New York in 1913, before Duchamp arrived in this city. “She walked around, but in an artistic way duly claimed as such. She also used to make up costumes with whatever she found on the street, including rubbish. […] This way of being did not correspond at all to what was expected of the fairer sex in the public space. His eccentricity and performance were well known and accepted in Greenwich. ”

Another fundamental question therefore consists in asking whether this queer artist before the hour had to do with Marcel Duchamp’s decision to dress himself as a woman to play Rrose Sélavy. “I think so,” says the art historian. It was in the logic of the contest between the two. They were not in competition, but in very strong intellectual stimulation. It seems logical that they revived in this way. ”

She also says that Elsa von Freytag went “much further” than Marcel Duchamp. “Him, copied the female attributes to make a character photographed in a studio. She was displayed in a fluid gender identity in public space. She practiced this fluidity in everyday life and she even dared to be naked in the street. ”

The important thing is to target the challenges of the community and to follow their evolution. The question of fluid identity, for example, was not the same 100 years ago as it is now. “When Marcel Duchamp plays Rrose Sélavy, what is he caricature? A woman of the time or her friend Elsa von Freytag? Today, transidentity asserts itself through a plurality of voices and a multitude of ways of challenging the norm. We speak of heterormativity today, which was not the case in the 1920s. “

De Visu – Shaping the space of the “white cube”

To what extent have contemporary multidisciplinary artistic practices transformed our perception of the gallery or museum? This question is at the heart of the exhibition Three paintings. A sculpture. Three spaces presented at the Leonard and Bina Ellen Gallery at Concordia University. Based on recent works by Claude Tousignant, curator Michèle Thériault offers us an intriguing reflection on the relationship between the work of art, the viewer and traditional exhibition spaces, commonly called “white cubes”.

Recognized mainly for his role in the visual arts movement in the 1960s, the artistic activity of Claude Tousignant, now aged 75, has always remained attached to the rigorous practice of geometric abstraction. This exhibition gives the opportunity to appreciate the recent production of this artist and makes it possible to understand to what extent his research remains very current.

As the title suggests, the exhibition presents simply four works: a series of large-format monochrome white or black paintings and a painted aluminum sculpture. When you enter the room, you are first struck by the refined feeling that emanates from it. The works are carefully demarcated and presented in different sections of the gallery. This presentation is reminiscent of the 3X3 exhibition we saw at the same place last January and which showed the work of Donald Judd, Carl Andre and Dan Flavin. In fact, Tousignant’s large monochrome paintings have a minimalist sculptural quality that closely resembles the work of these artists. This impression is reinforced by the way they are placed, flush with the ground and slightly offset from the wall.

What interests the curator is the deeply “spatial” quality of Tousignant’s work. Faced with these works, the viewer is invited to reflect on his relationship with the exhibition space: the large monochrome abstractions echo the large white panels that divide the gallery while their geometric shapes also refer to the window, the ceiling and even in the office at the back of the room. The gaze is therefore not only attracted by the work on display but also by its context and its environment. We realize that the entire space of the gallery and all its components participate, in a symbiosis, in the creation of a larger “artistic installation”.

We read in the text of the catalog: “We know that a gallery has the power to transform a work and vice versa. It is therefore a material that is shaped and shaped. ” We thus become aware of the importance of the role of the curator and of the fact that our experience of art is directly influenced by the place of exhibition which “shapes” our point of view. Indeed, one can wonder if the works of Tousignant would have had the same impact if they had been placed in another way or shown in a more “public” space which would not be imbued with the same aura as that of this gallery. .

Conversely, one can wonder if the proliferation of contemporary artistic practices, anchored in sound, audiovisual or “relational aesthetics”, has not transformed our perception of these same premises. The question is therefore to know whether we are now witnessing a redefinition of these “traditional” art distribution centers, namely galleries and museums. On this subject, Michèle Thériault says: “We agree that art is manifested today in a variety of places. It would be wrong, however, to deny the still important role that institutional white space plays in the challenges of the art market and the consecration of the artist. ” It is therefore all the complex dimension linked to this “white space” that she skillfully succeeds in bringing out here.

Another interesting addition to this exhibition is the inauguration of two new programs which will be presented by the gallery and which revolve around the permanent collection. The first, entitled “Collection”, currently brings together paintings from the Square Dances series produced in 1964 and 1965 by Yves Gaucher. The second, entitled “Capsule”, offers us a reflection by the writer Scott Toguri McFarlane around two abstract works by the artist Roy Kiyooka.

Collaborator of Duty